Custom written research papers on Afghanistan and Iraq
Papers on the operations of the United States army in the Middle East are more common on custom assignment writing websites because of the increased American engagement in the past 15 years. It is therefore common for professors to ask students to write papers on the topic. You can get assignment writing help from online by registering here and ordering that paper. You can buy your essay on Afghanistan or Iraq in a moment. Below is an example of a international student paper on US military engagement in Afghanistan.
The main United States goal in Afghanistan is to dismantle, disrupt, and defeat Al Qaeda and their hideouts, and block them from ever returning to Afghanistan again. The Al Qaeda movement remains the course of all the problems that afflict Afghanistan. The United States, therefore, needs to pursue its strategy based on three fronts to have the slightest chance of success. These include having a military offensive in Afghanistan in order to defeat the armed insurgents or terrorists groups; conducting a civilian campaign that will help improve the economy, government, and civil societies that are in Afghanistan thereby weakening the pull of extremism; and intensifying the diplomatic push for the purposes of bringing to an end the Afghanistan conflict and charting a fresh and more secure future for the country (Williams, 2004). The key methods of engagement in Afghanistan should, therefore, be security, identity and economy.
United States has significant interests that it needs to protect both at home and in Afghanistan. To protect these interests, it is necessary for the United States government to use military and law enforcement capabilities. Countering the insurgents/terrorists does not imply destroying everything in Afghanistan, but influencing the population to be against them (Cummings, 2010). It also implies using military capability to establish security systems within Afghanistan that will allow for democratic governance. The United States government aim should be helping the Afghan people to strengthen the Afghan National Security Forces and the police in order to sustain a more secure environment and sponsor law and order (Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada, 2011). Key goals for the United States government should be achieving nationwide stability, enforcement and strengthening of the law, and providing a secure environment for every Afghan. Such a structure will be fundamental in establishing a sustainable Afghan government after transition. Establishment of an integrated security system in Afghanistan by the United States should involve the use of Provincial Reconstructions teams, which should be given the capacity to aid the security sector reform; particularly through disarmament, demobilization and reintegration (Putzel et al., 2003). The United States military intervention should be aimed at strengthening the Afghan government administrative capacity at both the district and provincial levels. As earlier mentioned, the United States military intervention should not only be geared towards fighting international terrorism. The focus ought to be also on the establishment of the domestic security. The terrorists are more active because of the insecurity that mars their home countries. The insecurity gives them room for operation. The Afghan’s Ministry of Defense should undergo major reforms for it to support the demilitarization, demobilization and reintegration of the terrorist. The demilitarization, demobilization and reintegration program should also be designed well. The reformed Ministry of Defense major tasks should include a plan to reduce the heavy armaments, creating other sources of employment and status, more so for middle-level commanders, and speeding up of training program in the new military system. The training program of the Afghan’s National Army might be a slow process, but the United States military should ensure that the officer corps are better trained and more representative. The United States should also recognize the fact that most recruits could be majorly drawn from previously existing militias. There is also the “Warlord Power” effect. Afghanistan is mostly controlled by warlords. The United States military ought to introduce positive incentives that will ensure the cooperation of warlords in realizing peace and national integration. The Ministry of Defense should be established in an ethnically balanced model which has got the credibility and authority to deal with warlords (power brokers) on an even-handed basis.
Most of Afghanistan’s population lives in what could be referred to as “coping economy.” Under coping economy, survival is the main aim. Such households have no choice, but to engage in poppy cultivation. The cultivation of poppy has bought up an illicit economy, as farmers have to cooperate with criminals or terrorists who purchase the illegal poppies and convert them into narcotics. According to a paper by Stanford University, Afghanistan contributed 70% of the world’s opium in the year 2000. The United States government, through the UN, should facilitate economic security to enable farmers engage in productive agriculture. A partial cause for difficulty in generation of food products is Afghanistan’s population involvement in farming, processing, and trafficking of cannabis and opiate products. The United States government through the new Afghanistan government should make serious efforts in order to eliminate poppy fields. This can be done through making the cultivation of poppy illegal and reconstructing the agricultural sector to enable Afghan farmers to practice other types of farming. Reconstruction of the agricultural sector can include construction of irrigation systems, striking a balance between external provision of relief and incentives in order to increase domestic production and crop substitution (Stanford University). United States should help Afghanistan government to establish local food and commodity market in order to provide a ready market for agricultural produce. This calls for rehabilitation of transport networks to link northern and southern parts of the country. United States partnership with multilateral banks can be able to oversee the reconstruction of transport and telecommunications network. The farmers should be provided with seeds and livestock to jumpstart the agricultural sector. Through regeneration of a viable agricultural sector, there will be an improvement in food security, apart from the provision of temporary and permanent employment opportunities. The Afghan nationals will see no need to collaborate with insurgents as they will be assured of a source of livelihood. Identity Afghanistan is embroiled in serious identity conflicts. Identity conflicts are marked by differences in ethnic groups and differences in religious doctrines. Conflicts in the recent times illustrate how religious identity and ethnic identity are important components in understanding issues to do with security (Haynes, 2012). Issues to do with religion have slowed down United States progress in establishing a peaceful state in Afghanistan. All Afghans are Muslims, and some believe in deep religious doctrines which make it difficult to achieve peace. The religious doctrines that justify Muslims bombing of different targets cannot be clearly explained. What is more mind-boggling is that most of the victims in those attacks are not Christians but Muslims. The United States has, therefore, concentrated on the fight against counterinsurgency in order to preserve its national interests. One of the strategies that the United States government could employ is to increase the number of campaigns that educate Afghans on the need to embrace religious doctrines that do not submit to violent causes. The campaigns, through Non-Governmental Organizations, might contribute considerably in encouraging the Afghans to embrace religious beliefs that are not tied to violent extremist organizations.
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The war against terrorism in Afghanistan can be won. Adopting a strategy of “fight, build, talk” shows that there is an understanding that a political resolution offers the best hope of peace for Afghanistan, which has been plagued with decades-long conflict. Afghanistan and the region stand to gain from widened sustainable stability. Reconciliation will enable for increased economic growth and opportunities, and greater regional economic integration. America should engage Afghanistan through security, economy and identity. References Cummings, M. G. (2010). Influencing the Population. Infantry. Retrieved from http://www.onviolence.com/images/influencing_the_population_-_in_mag.pdf Haynes, J. (23 July, 2012). “Extremist Islam and Counterinsurgency in Afghanistan and Iraq.” e-International Relations. Retrieved from http://www.e-ir.info/2012/07/23/extremist-islam-and-counterinsurgency-in-afghanistan-and-iraq/ Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada (2011). Canada’s Engagement in Afghanistan.-Quarterly Report to Parliament for the Period of January 1 to March 31st, 2011. Retrieved from http://www.afghanistan.gc.ca/canada-afghanistan/assets/pdfs/docs/r03_11-eng.pdf Stanford University (n.d.). “Rebuilding Afghanistan-The US Role.” Retrieved from http://www.stanford.edu/class/intnlrel193/readings/week6/afghan.html Putzel, J. et al. (2003). “State Reconstruction and International Engagement in Afghanistan.” Report of the Symposium. Retrieved from http://www.ag-afghanistan.de/arg/arp/finrep.pdf Williams, M. (2004). Why Ideas Matter in International Relations: Hans Morgenthau, Classical Realism, and Moral Construction of Power Politics. International Organization, 58(4) 633-665.